Malcolm X (1925–1965), born Malcolm Little ( he also became known as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz) was an African-American Muslim minister and human rights activist. To his admirers he was a courageous advocate for the rights of blacks, a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans; detractors accused him of preaching racism and violence. He has been called one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history.
After a period of travel in Africa and the Middle East, which included completing the Hajj, he became a Sunni Muslim and left the Nation of Islam, disavowed racism and founded Muslim Mosque, Inc. and the Organization of Afro-American Unity. He continued to emphasize Pan-Africanism, black self-determination, and black self-defense. On February 21, 1965, he was assassinated by three members of the Nation of Islam.